In Bougainville and Timor-Leste, uncivil society groups were composed of ex-combatants and/or marginalized communities who felt that they were excluded from the peace and reconciliation process.
The exclusion of some rebel groups from peace negotiations can perpetuate civil war, rather than hastening a resolution.
Context: Women are underrepresented in peace talks. Peace Science shows how women’s inclusion in peacebuilding is crucial to the success and
Recent studies have shown that "complex" peace agreements with long lists of provisions are more likely to lead to a return of violence within five years. This research is important to the ongoing Korean peace process: focus should be placed on peace agreements built on trust with clear, actionable provisions.
The United States has downplayed the importance of including civil society in the peace talks between North and South Korea. However, civil society has a proven track record in this area: history and research show that by including civil society in negotiations, the strength and longevity of peace agreements are increased.
In the month since the Singapore summit, much of the world has been waiting for a plan for "complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.” But in Seoul, Koreans aren’t wasting time defining denuclearization: Instead, they are pushing ahead with plans for reconciliation with North Korea—with or without the United States.
In the wake of the Kim/Trump Singapore summit, there are important lessons they can learn from past summits: the need to establish common policy ground, manage their respective domestic politics, and forge trusting and respectful personal relationships.