Women comprised less than a quarter of the Afghan religious peacebuilders network examined, and most of them were engaged in peacebuilding work focused on education, including teaching peace and conflict resolution from an Islamic perspective or raising awareness in their spheres of influence about what Islamic sacred texts say about peace.
Nonviolent uprisings with radical flanks have a higher mediation rate—35%, as opposed to 14% for those uprisings without radical flanks—suggesting that movements with radical flanks may create greater incentives for mediation due to the “greater risks of negative externalities.”
Peace agreements are not helped by boasting about policy successes that have not yet happened and weakening relationships with strategic allies. Peace science points to more effective roles mediators and negotiators can play to achieve durable peace.
In the wake of the Kim/Trump Singapore summit, there are important lessons they can learn from past summits: the need to establish common policy ground, manage their respective domestic politics, and forge trusting and respectful personal relationships.
During mediation, perspective-taking may lead to more positive feelings towards the other party, due increased empathy and the feeling of being heard.