Peer-reviewed research on radicalization and violent extremism identifies a “basic structure of the process of radicalization” where an individual has “real or perceived political grievance(s),” perceives participation in violent extremism as somehow appealing or beneficial, and has a “personal vulnerability” expressed as certain personality traits or a mental health concern.
Militarism, militarized security, warfare, and the military itself all depend on gender hierarchies—the privileging of masculinity and its associated traits over femininity and its associated traits—and “gendered myths and images” to function.
A critical feminist perspective is necessary to a more accurate understanding of problems around gender and militarism, security, warfare, and militaries themselves. All of these depend on gender hierarchies—the privileging of masculinity and its associated traits over femininity and its associated traits—and “gendered myths and images” to function.
Individuals with high levels of masculine honor beliefs have more positive perceptions of war, higher levels of support for aggressive security policies, and lower levels of support for peacebuilding and diplomacy.
Masculinity operates in both U.S. and Indian nuclear weapon discourses--marking their nuclear programs as rational, responsible action engaged in strategic interdependence to meet their economic and political interests, and other programs as inadequate, irrational, or in need of supervision.
Masculinity and Orientalism operate in U.S./Indian nuclear discourses, marking the non-Western country as inferior and irresponsible, requiring scrutiny.