The top-down approach to peacebuilding has largely failed at creating sustainable peace in places such as Afghanistan, Congo, Iraq, and South Sudan. Yet, a small Congolese island in Lake Kivu has kept the peace despite holding known prerequisites for violent conflict. Their success is largely due to an emphasis on the local's role in conflict transformation.
High levels of mineral reserves are a contributing factor in the 20+ year violent conflict in the Congo. Peace Science shows the link between natural resources and conflict, and how government income from natural resources can lead to more deadly, longer lasting, conflict.