In Afghanistan, some women from “liberal democracies” report experiencing a “third gender”—whereby, if they act as equals to their male counterparts, they “are masculinized, and not real women but something else,” providing them with a measure of freedom and access in this context.
Women comprised less than a quarter of the Afghan religious peacebuilders network examined, and most of them were engaged in peacebuilding work focused on education, including teaching peace and conflict resolution from an Islamic perspective or raising awareness in their spheres of influence about what Islamic sacred texts say about peace.
Nearly twenty years of war has had a devastating impact on children in Afghanistan. War casualties among Afghan children are on the rise, and nearly half do not attend school.
Investment in medium-sized enterprises can play a central role in building sustainable peace in Afghanistan. Previous research on local business and entrepreneurial investment in post-conflict communities support this claim.
In response to the regular occurrence of violence in Afghan society, Afghans have expressed helplessness, fear, widespread insecurity, and traumatization but also have learned to cope by normalizing violence, desensitizing themselves from it, and integrating it into their daily lives.